The nest is a mass of twigs and branches, intertwined with bramble ( Rubus ) shoots and lichens, with a deep cup, lined with soft plant materials, including willow ( Salix ) seeds, mosses and lichens. National population estimates include:.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China;.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Korea;.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Japan and.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009). Trend justification, the population is suspected to be in decline,.g. Conduct further research on the effects of disturbance from hunting and the nomadic habits of the species outside the breeding season (Tucker and Heath 1994). Betula ) forest where conifers predominate and is found from taiga lowlands up to 4,000 m in Nepal (Madge 2009). In Tien Shan, the species shows a preference for Tien Shan spruce (. It breeds in the high Arctic from late-May or early-June (depending on the timing of the Arctic thaw) in single pairs or loose
groups, often with colonies of nesting gulls or terns (del Hoyo. Iceland ) and Asia, through the Aleutian Islands (year-round breeding) to Alaska (. Rhododendron ) and conifer forests, with deodar cedar (. Continue Mink eradication programme.
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Conservation actions Conservation Actions Underway CMS Appendix. Picea abies ) and Swiss pine pinus cembra mixed forests of silver fir (. This species is listed on Annex II (and III) of the EU Birds Directive and can only be hunted in those ten Member States specifically mentioned in the Birds Directive: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands, Romania and.K. Non-breeding, the species winters on shallow coastal waters less than 10 m deep (especially in the vicinity of sewage outlets as well as sheltered bays, estuaries and brackish coastal lagoons (del Hoyo. Wetland habitats critical to breeding success are potentially threatened by climate change. In the east of the range (from Kamchatka south to Japan) the species is linked with Japanese stone pine (. Juni 2015 Oppdatert. Although the population may be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion ( 30 decline over ten years or three generations). The species is highly gregarious outside of the breeding season and is commonly observed in small or large flocks sometimes of several thousand individuals (Madge and Burn 1988; Scott and Rose 1996; Kear 2005). Identify Important Bird Areas and protect habitats and sites.
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The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion ( 10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be 10 in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). Diet, the species is omnivorous (Kear 2005). Conservation actions Conservation Actions Underway Bern Convention Appendix. Lillehaug, hans Børge, rådgjevar, ljostveit, aslaug, sekretær. Acknowledgements Text account compilers Ashpole, J, Butchart,., Ekstrom,. During the winter, its diet consisting predominantly of molluscs (Johnsgard 1978) such as muscles, cockles and clams while in coastal habitats and. For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.